It was discovered in 1902 by the German archaeologist Herzog, to whom the site was indicated persistently by the Koan historian Zaraftis. It is located at about 5 km to the southeast of the city, on the top of a hill from where the view is indeed fascinating. The three most important, of the 300 known, Asklepieia were those of Trikki, in Thessaly, where the worship of Asklepios originates, of Epidaurus and of Kos, the last being considered as primum inter pares, because in this taught Hippokrate, the greatest physician of the antiquity. it consists of three terraces (Andrea) separated from each other by broad and agnificent marble steps. At the third (the highest) terrace there was a great marble temple of Doric order dedicated to Asklepios. At the second, on the left side, there was another temple of Asklepios. At the second, on the left side, there was another temple of Asklepios and, on the right, a temple of Apollo and an altar of the 4th century B.C. At the first (the lowest) terrace there was a small temple of the reputed physician Xenophon, also a portico and a group of buildings housing the School of Medicine and the Museum of Anatomy and pathology, with exhibits, votive offerings illustrations and descriptions of the cured patients.
Odeum (Roman Theater)
Facing the Ancient Gymnasium, on the other side of Gregorios E’ St. lies the Roman Odeum. It was built in the 3rd. century A.D. and was excavated in 1929. It is in quite good condition, with eighteen marble steps.The construction of this Amphitheater was based on vaulted arcades. Inside these Arcades some ancient statues were discovered, including the one of Hypocrites, which is displayed in the museum.
This historic tree which is considered by many as the oldest tree in Europe, stands in front of the entrance to the Knights Castle. It’s trunk has a circumference of approx – imately twelve meters, and according to tradition it was under this very tree that Hippokrates taught medicine to his students. Next to the Platanos, there is an ancient Sarcophagus, which during the Turkish occupation was used as a water trough for the nearby Mosque.
The Castle of the Knights
Standing on the right side of the harbour, is this most impressive monument of the Venetian period. Built by the Knights of St. John in the 15th. century.It consists of an inner and outer wall, and is in quite good condition. It shows an interesting example of the defensive architecture in 15th. century.Kept within the Castle are many artifacts from ancient temples.
In the north eastern part of Kos town, near the harbour lies the Ancient Town. There one can see the ruins of a Hellenistic Temple dedicated to Hercules, restored pillars of a small Temple and remains of a sanctuary, dedicated to Aphrodite.At the entrance to the Ancient Town there is a great arcade (STOA) –Kamara tou Forou. This faces the main square with the main market. In the western part are situated remainings of mainly public buildings of theHellenistic and Roman eras, such as the NYMPHAEUM, a very elegant structure and the XYSTO. The later was big gymnasiumin Doric style, as the seventeen restored columns testify.
On the same side of Gregorios E’ St. a little further towards town lies the 3rd. century Roman House, built on the ruins of an ancient Greek house. It was restored during the Italian occupation, and has beautiful Mosaics and Frescoes.
It lies in the Plateia Eleftherias (Freedom Square), across from the Dimotiki Agora, (The Municipal Market). The rooms where the statues and mosaics are displayed are designed in such a way so that each piece stands out beautifully,The collection includes some Ancient ceramics, classical and Hellenistic sculptures, small statues of Aphrodite, Eros and Demeter. There are lovely intricate mosaics, and of course the statue of Hippokrates.